Controlling Your TV via (Circuit)Python

This is yet another of the pre-announced projects, and possibly one of the most procrastinated ones. I own a Sony Bravia TV I bought in Ireland in 2013, and is still working very well for our needs (we don’t watch that much TV). It’s connected to a Yamaha RX-V475 receiver on one input and a cheap HDMI switch on the other input, because there’s too many devices, although we only use three or four of them most of the time: Chromecast, Portal TV, HTPC, and PlayStation 4. They are split equally between the two inputs. So far, so good.

The problem starts with the fact that sometimes if the TV is turned on by the Chromecast or the Portal, the ARC does not initialize properly, and we hear no audio. The solution is worthy of The IT Crowd: tell the TV to use the internal speakers, then tell it to use the external speakers again — turn off and on the ARC itself. It’s annoying and takes a few keypresses.

What I have been wanting for a while is a way to ask Assistant (or Alexa) to “unfuck the TV” — that is to reset the audio channel for us, recording a macro to do that ARC off/on dance. It was for this reason I bought the Feather M4 last year, but I only ended up starting to work on it just this month.

To make this possible, the first thing I needed was to know the commands sent by the remote, and have a way to replicate them back to the TV. I already had some experience with infrared receivers as, a long time ago in a different life, I maintained the LIRC patchset for Linux 2.6, for a while. I even tried writing Qt (3) bindings for LIRC. I wonder if I can find the source code anywhere. But that was not as useful as I thought.

Thankfully, Ken Shirriff wrote good documentation on the protocol, and linked to further details, and even to a full archive of all the Sony command codes. Which made my life much easier, but not completely easy. While Adafruit has an IRRemote library, it does not correctly interpret Sony SIRC commands. I considered adding the support directly into it, but it turned out to be a bit more invasive than expected, so I ended up instead writing a separate package that included both the decoder and the encoder (this was before I started the new job, so releasing it was easy — but now I’m having to wait a little bit to continue on it.)

Now, once I managed to decode the commands, I need to be able to send them. And here’s where things get interesting. What we usually refer to as commands are a bunch of bits. These are encoded, based on the protocol, as a series of pulses, which are modulated on top of a carrier wave with a certain frequency.

Unfortunately, it turns out that talking to a Sony TV is nowhere near as easy as it might sound. Let’s try to figure out what’s going on by providing a bit of vocabulary. An infrared signal as used by most remote controls usually carries a command and, in most cases, an address to specify which device should take the command (since they are usually used in place where there are multiple devices using infrared remote controls). These are encoded in bits according to the rules of the protocol, and then converted to pulses. These pulses are then applied to a carrier wave of a certain frequency, which defines the speed at which the infrared LED is “blinking” on and off. The LED itself has a wavelength which represent the “colour” of the light in the infrared spectrum.

For Sony’s SIRC, the TV expects a 40kHz carrier, and it seems a 950nm wavelength. It seems like you can use 940nm LEDs but they have worse reception, and only works if they are bright enough. The first batch of LEDs I bought, as well as the pre-soldered module from DFRobot, turned out to not be bright enough for my TV to recognize — so I decided to try with desoldering the LED from a replacement remote control from eBay, which worked fine, so I thought I needed 950nm LEDs — but no, it works with good enough 940nm LEDs, just not with the tiny ones I originally bought from Mouser.

So once I had a way to send arbitrary Sony commands to my TV, I started looking for options to trigger the ARC reset — unfortunately this is proving more complicated than I expected: there’s no command that I could send that would provide me with the ARC menu. Instead I can only bring up the Sync menu reliably — but that menu has different entries depending on whether the selected input has working HDMI CEC, which is extremely annoying.

On the other hand, I did find commands that select directly the different inputs directly, instead of showing up the input selection menu and choosing from there. Which gave me a different idea to start with: while I haven’t given up on the macro for fixing the audio, what I can do is to script input selection across the two-level mux.

I started by wondering if I could send the IR command to the HDMI switcher as well, so that I could select between those two easily — that turned out to be another pile of yaks to shave. The switcher uses the NEC protocol, which has a 38kHz carrier wave, but that turned out not to matter as much (the decoder it uses seem to accept 40kHz just as well) — instead I had a hard time to get it to receive the command because it expected a NEC “repeat signal” to seal the command. I guess that’s going to be a blog post in and by itself.

Now, my original plan was to get something running on the Feather, attach an AirLift wing to give it WiFi, and control that… somehow. I also considered re-coding this with ESP32 and ESPHome, despite it not having an obvious way to send SIRC commands while making sense — it doesn’t represent the commands the way the protocol expects, and the most reasonable way I could find was to generate the pulse sequence, and just sending that raw.

But then I thought it over and realised that, at least for the moment, it makes more sense for me to use an USB-to-GPIO bridge, and control this from a full blown computer — the reason for that is that I would want to be able to open a webpage on my phone, or my wife’s, and select the right input altogether. And while there’s a Python module for controlling the receiver, using that from CircuitPython or MicroPython would probably take some work. And even though I could just control the Feather remotely, via MQTT or USB-Serial, it would still likely be more work than driving this all from the same Flask app locally.

Unfortunately, I don’t have code to show you yet. While my new dayjob has much simpler policies than the last, I need to complete the training before I can start releasing new projects. Hopefully next update will come with code and demos.

One thought on “Controlling Your TV via (Circuit)Python

  1. Was reading through your blog looking for stuff on ghidra (trying to RE ISDT charger), came across this post… I have a 2015 Vizio TV and a Chromecast Ultra, I also noticed the behaviour where sometimes the sound will not work when the Chromecast turns on the TV and starts casting Youtube… I wonder if this the same ARC problem you describe.

    The workaround I use is to use discrete IR codes (captured from a Harmony remote) to toggle the input to a different input, wait 2 seconds and switches back to the Chromecast input. This a Home Assistant script that calls an ESP8266 w/ ESPHome that blasts the IR codes.


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