For the long answer keep reading.
So thanks to Anthony and the PaX team yesterday I was able to set up the first x32 testing system — of which I lamented last week I was unable to get a hold of. The reason why it wasn’t working with LXC was actually quite simple: the RANDMMAP feature of the hardened kernel, responsible for the stronger ASLR was changing the load address of x32 binaries to be outside of the 32-bit range of the x32 pointers. Version 3.4.3 solves the issue finally and so I could set it up properly.
The first was the hard step: trying out libav. This is definitely an interesting and valuable test, simply because libav has so many hand-crafted assembly routines that it really shouldn’t suffer much from the otherwise slower amd64 ABI, and at the same time, Måns was sure that it wouldn’t have worked out of the box — which is indeed the case. From one side YASM still doesn’t support the new ABI which means that everything relying on it both in libav, x264 and other projects won’t work; from the other side the inline asm (which is handled by GCC) is now a completely different “third way” from the usual 32-bit x86 and the 64-bit amd64.
While I was considering setting up a tbx32 instance to see what would actually work, the answer right now is “way too little”; heck even Ruby 1.9 doesn’t work right now because it’s using some inline asm that is no longer working.
More interesting is that the usual way to discern which architecture one’s in are going to fail, badly:
sizeof(void*)are both 4 (which means that both types are 32-bit), like on x86;
__x86_64__is defined just like on amd64 and there is no define specific for x32; the best you can do is to check for
__SIZEOF_LONG__ == 4
__ILP32__at the same time — edit: yes I knew that there had to be one define more specific than that, I just didn’t bother to look it up before; the point of needing two checks still stands, mmkay?
What does this mean? It simply means that considering it took us years to have a working amd64 system, which was in many ways a “pure” new architecture, which could be easily discerned from the older x86, we’re going to spend some more years trying to get x32 working … and all for what? To have a smaller address range and thus smaller pointers, to save on memory usage and memory bandwidth … by the time x32 will be ready, I’d be ready to bet that neither concerns will be that important — heck I don’t have a single computer with less than 8GB of RAM, right now!
It might be more interesting to know why is x32 so important for enough people to work on it; to me, it seems like the main reason is that it saves a lot of memory on C++ programs, simply because every class and every object has so many pointers (functions, virtual functions and so on so forth), that the change from 32 to 64 bit has been a hit big enough. Given that there is so much software still written in C++ (I’m unconvinced as to why to be honest), it’s likely that there is enough interest in working on this to improve the performance.
But at the end of the day, I’m really concerned that this might not be worth the effort: we’re calling unto us another big problem with this kind of multilib (considering we never really solved multilib for the “classic” amd64, and that Debian is still working hard to get their multiarch method out of the door), plus a number of software porting problems that will keep a lot of people busy for the next years. The efforts would probably be better directed at improving the current software and moving everything to pure 64-bit.
On a final note, of course libav works if you disable all the hand-written assembly code, as everything is also available in pure C. But many routines can be as much as 10 or more times slower in pure C than using AVX, for instance, which means that even if you have a noticeable improvement going from amd64 to x32, you’re going to lose more by losing the assembly.
My opinion? It’s not worth it.