About the new Quagga ebuild

A foreword: some people might think that I’m writing this just to banter about what I did; my sincere reason to write, though, is to point out an example of why I dislike 5-minutes fixes as I wrote last December. It’s also an almost complete analysis of my process of ebuild maintenance so it might be interesting for others to read.

For a series of reasons that I haven’t really written about at all, I need Quagga in my homemade Celeron router running Gentoo — for those who don’t know, Quagga is a fork of an older project called Zebra, and provides a few daemons for route advertisement protocols (such as RIP and BGP). Before yesterday, the last version of Quagga in Portage was 0.99.15 (and the stable is an old 0.98 still), but there was recently a security bug that required a bump to 0.99.17.

I was already planning on getting Quagga a bump to fix a couple of personal pet peeves with it on the router; since Alin doesn’t have much time, and also doesn’t use Quagga himself, I’ve added myself to the package’s metadata; and started polishing the ebuild and its support files. The alternative would have been for someone to just pick up the 0.99.15 ebuild, update the patch references, and push it out with the 0.99.17 version, which would have categorized for a 5-minutes-fix and wouldn’t have solved a few more problems the ebuild had.

Now, the ebuild (and especially the init scripts) make a point that they were contributed by someone working for a company that used Quagga; this is a good start, from one point: the code is supposed to work since it was used; on the other hand companies don’t usually care for the Gentoo practices and policies, and tend to write ebuilds that could be polished a bit further to actually be compliant to our guidelines. I like them as a starting point, and I got used to do the final touches in those cases. So if you have some ebuilds that you use internally and don’t want to spend time maintaining it forever, you can also hire me to clean them up and merge in tree.

So I started from the patches; the ebuild applied patches from a tarball, three unconditionally and two based on USE flags; both of those had URLs tied to them that pointed out that they were unofficial feature patches (a lot of networking software tend to have similar patches). I set out to check the patches; one was changing the detection of PCRE; one was obviously a fix for --as-needed, one was a fix for an upstream bug. All five of them were on a separate patchset tarball that had to be fetched from the mirrors. I decided to change the situation.

First of all, I checked the PCRE patch; actually the whole PCRE logic, inside configure is long winded and difficult to grok properly; on the other hand, a few comments and the code itself shows that the libpcreposix library is only needed non non-GNU systems, as GLIBC provides the regcomp/@regexec@ functions. So instead of applying the patch and have a pcre USE flag, I changed to link the use or not of PCRE depending on the elibc_glibc implicit USE flag; one less patch to apply.

Second patch I looked at was the --as-needed-related patch that changed the order of libraries link so that the linker wouldn’t drop them out; it wasn’t actually as complete as I would have made. Since libtool handles transitive dependencies fine, if the libcap library is used in the convenience library, it only has to be listed there, not also in the final installed library. Also, I like to take a chance to remove unused definitions in the Makefile while I’m there. So I reworked the patch on top of the current master branch in their GIT, and sent it upstream hoping to get it merged before next release.

The third patch is a fix for an upstream bug that hasn’t been merged in a few releases already, so I kept it basically the same. The two feature patches had new versions released, and the Gentoo version seems to have gone out of sync with the upstream ones a bit; for the sake of reducing Gentoo-specific files and process, I decided to move to use the feature patches that the original authors release; since they are only needed when their USE flags are enabled, they are fetched from the original websites conditionally. The remaining patches are too small to be part of a patchset tarball, so I first simply put them in files/ are they were, with mine a straight export from GIT. Thinking about it a bit more, I decided today to combine them in a single file, and just properly handle them on Gentoo GIT (I started writing a post detailing how I manage GIT-based patches).

Patches done, the next step is clearing out the configuration of the program itself; the ipv6 USE flag handles the build and installation of a few extra specific daemons for for the IPv6 protocol; the rest are more or less direct mappings from the remaining flags. For some reason, the ebuild used --libdir to change the installation directory of the libraries, and then later installed an env.d file to set the linker search path; which is generally a bad idea — I guess the intention was just to follow that advice, and not push non-generic libraries into the base directory, but doing it that way is mostly pointless. Note to self: write about how to properly handle internal libraries. My first choice was to see if libtool set rpath properly, and in that case leave it to the loader to deal with it. Unfortunately it seems like there is something bad in libtool, and while rpath worked on my workstation, it didn’t work on the cross-build root for the router though; I’m afraid it’s related to the lib vs lib64 paths, sigh. So after testing it out on the production router, I ended up revbumping the ebuild already to unhack itif libtool can handle it properly, I’ll get that fixed upstream so that the library is always installed, by default, as a package-internal library, in the mean time it gets installed vanilla as upstream wrote it. It makes even more sense given that there are headers installed that suggest the library is not an internal library after all.

In general, I found the build system of quagga really messed up and in need of an update; since I know how many projects are sloppy about build systems, I’d probably take a look. But sincerely, before that I have to finish what I started with util-linux!

While I was at it, I fixed the installation to use the more common emake DESTDIR= rather than the older einstall (which means that it now installs in parallel as well); and installed the sample files among the documentation rather than in /etc (reasoning: I don’t want to backup sample files, nor I want to copy them to the router, and it’s easier to move them away directly). I forgot the first time around to remove the .la files, but I did so afterwards.

What remains is the most important stuff actually; the init scripts! Following my own suggestions the scripts had to be mostly rewritten from scratch; this actually was also needed because the previous scripts had a non-Gentoo copyright owner and I wanted to avoid that. Also, there were something like five almost identical init scripts in the package, where almost is due to the name of the service itself; this means also that there had to be more than one file without any real reason. My solution is to have a single file for all of them, and symlink the remaining ones to that one; the SVCNAME variable is going to define the name of the binary to start up. The one script that differs from the other, zebra (it has some extra code to flush the routes) I also rewrote to minimise the differences between the two (this is good for compression, if not for deduplication). The new scripts also take care of creating the /var/run directory if it doesn’t exist already, which solves a lot of trouble.

Now, as I said I committed the first version trying it locally, and then revbumped it last night after trying it on production; I reworked that a bit harder; beside the change in libraries install, I decided to add a readline USE flag rather than force the readline dependency (there really isn’t much readline-capable on my router, since it’s barely supposed to have me connected), this also shown me that the PAM dependency was strictly related to the vtysh optional component; and while I looked at PAM, (Updated) I actually broke it (and fixed it back in r2); the code is calling pam_start() with a capital-case “Quagga” string; but Linux-PAM puts it in all lower case… I didn’t know that, and I was actually quite sure that it was case sensitive. Turns out that OpenPAM is case-sensitive, Linux-PAM is not; that explains why it works with one but not the other. I guess the next step in my list of things to do is check out if it might be broken with Turkish locale. (End of update)

Another thing that I noticed there is that by default Quagga has been building itself as a Position Independent Executable (PIE); as I have written before using PIE on a standard kernel, without strong ASLR, has very few advantages, and enough disadvantages that I don’t really like to have it around; so for now it’s simply disabled; since we do support proper flags passing, if you’re building a PIE-complete system you’re free to; and if you’re building an embedded-enough system, you have nothing else to do.

The result is a pretty slick ebuild, at least in my opinion, less files installed, smaller, Gentoo-copyrighted (I rewrote the scripts practically entirely). It handles the security issue but also another bunch of “minor” issues, it is closer to upstream and it has a maintainer that’s going to make sure that the future releases will have an even slicker build system. It’s nothing exceptional, mind you, but it’s what it is to fix an ebuild properly after a few years spent with bump-renames. See?

Afterword: a few people, seemingly stirred up by a certain other developer, seems to have started complaining that I “write too much”, or pretend that I actually have an uptake about writing here. The main uptake I have is not having to repeat myself over and over to different people. Writing posts cost me time, and keeping the blog running, reachable and so on so forth takes me time and money, and running the tinderbox costs me money. Am I complaining? Not so much; Flattr is helping, but trust me that it doesn’t even cover the costs of the hosting, up to now. I’m just not really keen on the slandering because I write out explanation of what I do and why. So from now on, you bother me? Your comments will be deleted. Full stop.

7 thoughts on “About the new Quagga ebuild

  1. I’m glad to inform you that I enjoy reading your posts and don’t think that you write too much.

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  2. Keep up the good work. I’ve been hurting to see updates to Quagga’s package, and I know installing it can be tricky sometimes.Good to see someone is looking out for it!

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  3. Looking at the ebuild I noticed there’s econf || die which is not needed according to the devmanual quickstart[1]:<quote>Note that econf does not need the || die idiom, as it dies by itself if something failed.</quote>[1]: http://devmanual.gentoo.org

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  4. Yeah technically econf does not need @|| die@. I’ll be sincere and I tend to simply add it unless I explicitly go removing it; it’s useful to catch stuff like this:<typo:code>econf –disable-dependency-tracking –disable-static $(use_enable nls) || die “econf failed”</typo:code>Spot the error?

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  5. That missing newline escape is sneaky, but agreed that it’s easy to create when adding/removing/moving around econf options. Guess PEP 20[1] comes into play here: <quote>Explicit is better than implicit.</quote>Btw, is it me or is the preview broken?[1]: http://www.python.org/dev/p

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  6. Thanks for the hard work — for the /var/run thing, can’t you use “checkpath” for that? Or is that baselayout2-only?

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