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Distributed SCM showdown: GIT versus Mercurial

Although I admit it’s tempting, I’m not going to enter the mess of complaints (warranted or not) about GIT that have found place on Planet GNOME. I don’t intend to go down on what my issues are with bzr either, since I think I exposed them already. I’m going to comment on a technical issue I have with Mercurial, and show why I find GIT more useful, at least in that case.

If you remember xine moved to Mercurial almost two years ago. The choice of Mercurial at the time was pushed because it seemed much more stable (git indeed had a few big changes since then), it was already being used for gxine, and it had better multi-platform support (running git on Solaris at the time was a problem, for instance). While I don’t think it’s (yet) the time to reconsider, especially since I haven’t been active in xine development for so long that my opinion wouldn’t matter, I’d like to share some insight about the problems I have with Mercurial, or at least with the Mercurial version that Alioth is using.

Let’s not start with the fact that hg does not seem to play too well with permissions, and the fact that we have a script to fix them on Alioth to make sure that we can all push to the newly created repositories. So if you think that setting up a remote GIT repository is hard, please try doing so with Mercurial, without screwing permissions up.

For what concerns command line interface, I agree that hg follows more the principle of least surprise, and indeed has an interface much more similar to CVS/SVN than git has. On the other hand, it requires quite a bit of wondering around to do stuff like git rebase, and it requires enabling extensions that are not enabled by default, for whatever reason.

The main problem I got with HG, though, is with the lack of named branches. I know that the newer versions should support them but I have been unable to find documentation about them, and anyway Alioth is not updated so it does not matter yet. With the lack of named branches, you basically have one repository per branch; while easier to deal with multiple build directories, it becomes quite space-hungry since the reflog is not shared between these repositories, while it is in git (if you clone one linux-2.6 repository, then decide you need a branch from another developer, you just add that remote and fetch it, and it’ll download the minimum amount of changesets needed to fill in the history, not a whole copy of the repository).

It also makes it much more cumbersome to create a scratch branch before doing more work (even more so because you lack a single-command rebase and you need to update, transplant and strip each time), which is why sometimes Darren kicked me for pushing changes that were still work in progress.

In git, since the changesets are shared between branches, a branch is quite cheap and you can branch N times without almost feeling it, with Hg, it’s not that simple. Indeed, now that I’m working at a git mirror for xine repositories I can show you some interesting data:

flame@midas /var/lib/git/xine/xine-lib.git $ git branch -lv
  1.2/audio-out-conversion   aafcaa5 Merge from 1.2 main branch.
  1.2/buildtime-cpudetection d2cc5a1 Complete deinterlacers port.
  1.2/macosx                 e373206 Merge from xine-lib-1.2
  1.2/newdvdnav              e58483c Update version info for libdvdnav.
* master                     19ff012 "No newline at end of file" fixes.
  xine-lib-1.2               e9a9058 Merge from 1.1.
flame@midas /var/lib/git/xine/xine-lib.git $ du -sh .
34M	.

flame@midas ~/repos/xine $ ls -ld xine-lib*   
drwxr-xr-x 12 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 12:01 xine-lib
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 12:19 xine-lib-1.2
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:00 xine-lib-1.2-audio-out-conversion
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:11 xine-lib-1.2-buildtime-cpudetection
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:12 xine-lib-1.2-macosx
drwxr-xr-x 12 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:28 xine-lib-1.2-mpz
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:30 xine-lib-1.2-newdvdnav
drwxr-xr-x 13 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:50 xine-lib-1.2-plugins-changes
drwxr-xr-x 12 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 12:53 xine-lib-gapless
drwxr-xr-x 12 flame flame 4096 Feb 21 13:56 xine-lib-mpeg2new
flame@midas ~/repos/xine $ du -csh xine-lib* | grep total
805M	total
flame@midas ~/repos/xine $ du -csh xine-lib xine-lib-1.2 xine-lib-1.2-audio-out-conversion xine-lib-1.2-buildtime-cpudetection xine-lib-1.2-macosx xine-lib-1.2-newdvdnav  | grep total
509M	total

As you might guess the ~/repos/xine content are the Mercurial repositories. You can see the size difference between the two SCMs. Sincerely, even though I have tons of space, on the server I’d rather keep git rather than Mercurial.

If some Mercurial wizard knows how to work around this issue I got with Mercurial, I might consider it again, otherwise for the future it’ll always be git for me.

Comments 3
  1. 1. HG uses hardlinks whenever possible2. Names branches is a term referd to what mercurial does. Assigning a real name to changeset, unlike git.3. Git’s branch behaviour can be reproduced with Mercurial 1.2 and the bookmark extension.… . But beware, before 1.3 they will be only local.

  2. I find this entire post to be highly misinformed. One should refrain from making comparisons without clearly understanding either scm.

  3. I find this entire post to be at least partially useful, and feel should refrain from making comments about posts without including substantive arguments explaining his/her gripes.

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