Birch Books With ATmega48

I last wrote about the Trinket M0 version of Birch Books, which is using CircuitPython and uses a much simplified code structure, while relying on one of two possible I/O expanders. But I felt a bit of a cheat to implement this one with a Trinket M0, which is a very powerful MCU to use for something that should be as simple as to keep a few lights on in a LEGO set.

So, as suggested by a colleague, I looked into the ATmega48, which is a close relative to the ATmega328 that Arduino is based on. Actually, these two versions are pin- and source-compatible so while I have now implemented it with the 48, the 328 (which is more commonly available) should work the same way.

The ATmega48 option is an interesting compromise between the 8052 and the Trinket M0. It’s an 8-bit microcontroller, and it requires to write low-level C to program, but at the same time it doesn’t require any passive components (as long as you don’t need more than 8MHz, and you didn’t make the mistake I made about having an active-high RST button). It turned out that the suggestion was a very good one, and the ATmega48 does indeed seem to fit this project very nicely.

Programming the ATmega48 can be done via 6-pin connectors that need to provide power, SPI bus, and the RST line. This can be achieved with Adafruit’s FT232H board: you connect the SPI lines just as described on the breakout, and use D3 for the RST line, then you just tell avrdude to use the UM232H variant. No other configuration is needed. I actually plan on crimping my own harness for this later, so I don’t need to use a breadboard all the time.

The other main difference between the ATmega48 and the 8052 is that the former has nearly half the pins, but it still has enough I/Os (14 outputs, 2 inputs) for Birch Books that there is no need to add an expander. There’s a few more I/O lines as well, but they are “overcommited” and by default configured to have different meanings. For instance the external clock pins can be re-configured to be additional I/O lines, and even the RST line can be disabled by fuses to gain one more I/O.

Let’s talk about the clock! The ATmega48 is sent out from factory with the fuses configured for a 1MHz clock, but can be configured up to 8MHz. Alternatively it can use an external clock and run up to… I forgot, and the point being I don’t need any of that. I did order 100 pieces of 12MHz crystals just to have them at hand, when I made an order from LCSC, but for this project, the 1MHz clock speed is plenty. So I left it configured the way it came from factory, and that works perfectly fine.

The code ended up being very similar to the 8052 version of course: it initializes the ports, sets up a timer input, and in the loop checks for the test button and otherwise keep updating the port state depending on the calculated virtual hour. While the ATmega48 would have allowed for more fine-grained controls on the timing, and thus allowed me to use the original planned scheduled, I decided to actually keep the same 1/16th of a second “tick” timer, and the same formulas to calculate the schedule.

Another thing allowed by the ATmega48, or rather the fact by the AVR-GCC, would be making the code more modular. As I ranted before, SDCC is not the most aggressive compiler, when it comes to optimizing around functions, and that’s why instead of having more structured code I ended up with a lot of spaghetti. To make it easier to compare and maintain the code together, I decided not to refactor the spaghetti in the AVR version, but I think that’s okay. The simplification around the timer handling is already a huge step forward anyway.

On the logic side, I decided to implement a one second power-on self-test though that turns on all of the lights. This was meant not just to easily test the code while I had it on my desk, but also just as a general “healthiness check” for the LEDs. I backported it to the CircuitPython code while I was at it, as well. And I removed the “knuckle pattern strobing” (which turned on every other LED alternatively), because it doesn’t work quite right or well on the real LEGO set (where two rooms use three LED lines tied together), simplifying the test logic.

The other thing that I found out by using the ATmega48 is that I do have some difference in the current limiting between the Trinket M0 and the other two controllers. When I installed the Trinket M0-based controller, the lights in the bookstore were much brighter, and even if that looked nice, it had me worried, because I knew that the LEDs I’ve been using tend to brown out quickly if they are powered at maximum current. I managed to pretty much kill one LED by keeping it running for just two days without a current-limiting resistor. And indeed, a month later, some of the LEDs are now nearly completely dark, and will need to be replaced.

Since the actuator board is the same, powered from 5V, and with 47 Ohm resistor networks for the LEDs in each case, I’m not entirely sure why this is happening. I might need to add some inline current metering to to see how that fits together. But that’s for another time.